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Citation Guide

This guide provides instructions on how to cite sources according to the different style manuals. Examples from MLA, APA and the Chicago style manuals are provided.

APA 7th Edition

Early in 2020 the American Psychological Association (APA) published its 7th edition of the Publication Manual Style.   

This guide incorporates the changes and provides examples to reflect them.

Quick Comparison Guide: APA 6th ed. and APA 7th ed.

Here is a comparison quick guide that points out o the changes in citing that were implemented in the APA 7th edition and are different from the citing guidelines of the APA 6th edition.

 

 

APA - Citing a Journal Article from an Online Database

Please pay attention to the APA 7th edition recent updates listed below when citing a journal from an online database. Make sure to incorporate these updates in your citations.

 

  • Multiple authors - For a work with up to 20 authors include all of the information in the reference. When the work has 21 or more authors, include only the first 19 names, an ellipsis, and the final author. 
  • No longer use "Retrieved from" in the citation. Provide the URL at the end of the citation
  • When citing an item from an online source, include the homepage URL in the citation.
  • When the article includes a DOI number, include the number in the citation instead of the URL
  • If the article has no DOI number, provide the name of the database and the article UR. 

Citing an article from an online journal with a URL 

Format: Author's Last name, A. A., Author's Last name, B. B. & Author's Last name, C. C. (year of publication). Article title. Journal Title, Volume (Issue), page-page. Include the URL or permalink to the article 

Example: Wallace, D. D., Boynton, M. H., & Lytle, L. A. (2017). Multilevel analysis exploring the links between stress, depression, and sleep problems among two-year college students. Journal of American College Health, 65(3), 187–196.  http://web.a.ebscohost.com.fscproxy.framingham.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=3645d875-f013-4d48-bc11-888a4815f0f3%40sdc-v-sessmgr06

Citing an article from an online journal with a DOI

Format: Author's last name, A .A., Author's last name, B. B. & Author's last name, C. C. (year of publication). Article title. Journal Title, Volume (Issue), page-page. DOI (include the DOI number here)

Example: Wallace, D. D., Boynton, M. H., & Lytle, L. A. (2017). Multilevel analysis exploring the links between stress, depression, and sleep problems among two-year college students. Journal of American College Health, 65(3), 187–196. https://doi-org.fscproxy.framingham.edu/10.1080/07448481.2016.1269111

Enter a DOI here: dx.doi.org and your browser will take you to the Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name.

 

APA - Citing a Print Journal

Please pay attention to the APA 7th edition recent updates listed below. Make sure to incorporate this update. in your citations.

  • The Journal title in the citation needs to be Italicized, 

Article from a Print Journal (Single author)

Format: Author's last name, A. A.. (Publication Date). "Article Title", Journal Title, Volume Number. Issue Number: Pages-Pages. The medium of Publication.

Example:  Klassen, Pamela E. (2004). "The Robes of Womanhood: Dress and Authenticity Among African American Methodist Women in the Nineteenth Century". Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation. vol.14, (1), pp.39-82. Print.

Article from Print Journal (Multiple authors)

Multiple authors - For a work with up to 20 authors, include all of the in the reference. When the work has 21 or more authors, include only the first 19 names, an ellipsis and the final author. 

Format: Author's last name, A. A.., Author's last name, B. B., and Author's last name, C. C.  (Publication Date)  "Article Title", Journal Title, Volume Number. Issue Number, Pages-Pages. The medium of Publication.

Example: Hibel, J., Farkas, G., and Morgan, P. (2010). "Who Is Placed into Special Education?" Sociology of Education, Volume 83, 4, pp. 312-332. Print. 

 

Video Tutorials - Citing Scholarly Journal Articles

APA - Citing a book

Please pay attention to the  APA 7th edition  recent updates listed below when citing a book.

Make sure to incorporate these updates into your citation

  •  Book title in the citation needs to be Italicized, 
  • The publisher location is no longer included in the citation.

Single Author

Format:  Author's last name, A. A.. (Year Published). Book Title. Publisher.

Example: Lears, J. (1994) Fables of Abundance: A Cultural History of Advertising in America. Basic Books.

Two Authors

Format: Author's last name, A. A. &  Author's last name, B.B. (year published). Book Title. Publisher.

Example:  Zammit, G. &  Zanca J. A. (1998) Goodnights: how to stop sleep deprivation, overcome insomnia, and get the sleep you need. Andrews McMeel.

Chapter or Anthology

Format: Author 's last name, A. A. (Year published). Section Title. In A. A. Editor's last name (Ed.), Book Title/Anthology (Edition). Publisher.

Example: Collier, R. (2004) "Masculinities and Crime: Rethinking the "Man Question?" In C. Sumner (ed.) The Blackwell Companion to Criminology. Blackwell.

Book with multiple editions (if more than one edition)

Format: Author 's last name, A .A.  (year published) Book Title. (Edition), Publisher.

Example: Mitchell, S. (1998). American Attitudes: Who Thinks What About The Issues That Shape Our Lives. (2nd edition). New Strategist.

 

 

Citing an E-book

Please pay attention to the APA 7th edition recent updates listed below when citing an e-book. Make sure to incorporate these updates in your citations.

  • The platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) are no longer included in the citation.
  • Only the book title in the citation needs to be Italicized; 
  • Do not Italicize the brackets, the content within the brackets, the URL or DOI.
  • The publisher is included in the citation. 
  • Include the URL or DOI

E-Book downloaded from an online library or another internet source - with URL

Format: Author's last name, A .A. (Year published). Book Title. Provide URL or DOI.

Example: Huffington, A. (2016). The Sleep Revolution. Harmony. 

https://minuteman.overdrive.com/media/CF1D0EBA-D277-477E-82C4-BE96EA490F3A

E-Book downloaded to an e-reader device

Format: Author's last name, A. A. (year published). Book Title. Provide URL or DOI.  

Example:  Huffington, A. (2016). The Sleep Revolution. Harmony. Provide URL or DOI from e-reader 

APA - Citing a Website

Please pay attention to the APA  7th edition recent update listed below when citing information from a website. Make sure to incorporate these updates in your citations.

  • No longer use "Retrieved from" in the citation. Provide the URL at the end of the citation
  • Retrieval dates need to be included in the citation only if the source material may change over time.
  • It is unnecessary to include the website name in the citation as the website name can be deduced from the URL.    
  • Website URL needs to be included only in websites in which the content changes frequently. 

Format: Author's last name, A.A (Year of publication). "Article Title", Website Title, Publication Date. The Medium of retrieval. Retrieval Date. URL. 

Example: Petrucci, K. T., (2010). "Teens May Need More sleep To Combat Depression". Healthtree.com.Web.   http://www.healthtree.com/news/research-and-development/teens-may-need-more-sleep-to-combat-depression/

 

APA - Citing Social Media

The link below provides instruction on how to cite different forms of Social Media in your Reference listing.