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Citation Guide

This guide provides instructions on how to cite sources according to the different style manuals. Examples from MLA, APA and the Chicago style manuals are provided.

APA 7th Edition.

What is an In-Text Citation?

When writing a paper, you will need to provide in-text citations (sometimes also called parenthetical citations) for quotes, summaries, and to give credit for ideas. Every in-text citation must have a corresponding entry in the reference list.

In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  • In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a comma and the publication year enclosed in parentheses: (Smith, 2007).
  • If you are paraphrasing an idea, the page number is not required.
  • If you are quoting directly, the page number should be included: (Kenney & Singh, 2016, p. 9).
  • If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the title, such as italics: (Naturopathic, 2007).

Get Help with Writing In-Text Citations

Do I need to cite after each sentence in a paragraph?

Yes! It is important to make reference to someone else's source each time you refer to it in your paper.  Citing only once at the end of the paragraph isn't enough, as it does not clearly show where in your paper you have started using another person's research and incorporate their work or ideas. 

 

The Difference between Quoting and Paraphrasing

There are two ways to integrate others' research into your assignment: you can paraphrase or you can quote.

Paraphrasing is used to show that you understand what the author wrote. You must reword the passage, expressing the ideas in your own words, and not just change a few words here and there. Make sure to also include an in-text citation.

Quoting is copying a selection from someone else's work, phrasing it exactly it was originally written. When quoting place quotation marks (" ") around the selected passage to show where the quote begins and where it ends. Make sure to include an in-text citation.

APA 7th In Minutes: In-text Citations

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