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Citation Guide

This guide provides instructions on how to cite sources according to the different style manuals. Examples from MLA, APA and the Chicago style manuals are provided.

NEW!!! MLA 9th Edition

 MLA Citation Style has recently been updated to the 9th edition. 

Compared to MLA 8th edition, most of the style guidelines and citation rules still apply in the 9th edition.

What has changed since MLA 8th edition?   

Not much! MLA 9th edition is an expansion of the 8th edition with new sections on grammar, writing advice, mindful of inclusive language, expansion endnotes & footnotes, and new guidelines for annotated bibliographies.

Here are the important citing updates of the MLA 9th edition:

URLs:

Remember: When getting a URL from a library's database use the permalink provided by the database. Do not copy and paste the browser. If a DOI is available, it is preferred over a permalink 

Also:

  • For general websites copy and paste the URL from your browser. Some links will include www. and others may not. Either one is acceptable.
  • Full URLs are recommended but optional. (Especially for URLs that are a few lines long).
  • Extremely Long URLs can be shortened to the general site.
  • If a DOI is available it is preferred over a URL or a Permalink.
  • DOI should now include the http:// and https:// prefix.

Access Date: 

  • Only use access dates when the source ( usually a website) does not provide a publication date. 

 

MLA - Citing An Article from an Online Journal in a Database

When citing an article from an online database - pay attention to the most recent changes of  the MLA  9th edition Citation Format listed below and incorporate them in your citation.

  • The Journal title in the citation needs to be Italicized not underlined.
  • Descriptors of numbers (Volume, issue number, month and year of publication and pages number) should be included in an abbreviated form. (ex: vol. 62, no. 4, Dec. 2010, pp. 99- 105). 
  • Commas and periods separate the elements in a citation. Colons and parenthesis are no longer used. 
  • Include the name of the Database provider. Including the article's URL (or proxylink) is recommended but optional
  • Indent your citation after the first line.

Citing an article from an online journal with a URL 

Format:  Author's Last name, A. A., Author's Last name, B. B. & Author's Last name, C. C. "Article Title", Journal Title, Volume Number, Issue Number, Publication Date, Pages. Database provider.  URL. 

Example: Dominique, R. B. “The Social Value of Voodoo throughout History: Slavery, Migrations and Solidarity.” Museum International, no. 4, 2010, p. 99. EBSCOhost, fscproxy.framingham.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.261886091&site=eds-live. 

Citing an article from an online journal with a DOI (Three or more authors)

Format:  Author's Last name, A. A., Author's Last name, B. B. & Author's Last name, C. C. "Article Title", Journal Title, Volume Number, Issue Number, Publication Date, Pages. Database provider.  URL. 

Example: Conlon, Rachel P.Kolko, et al. “Demographic, Pregnancy-Related, and Health-Related Factors in Association with Changes in Sleep Among Pregnant Women with Overweight or Obesity.” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, Apr. 2021, pp. 200–06. EBSCOhost, https://doi-org.fscproxy.framingham.edu/10.1007/s12529-020-09887-4

           

MLA - Citing a Print Journal

Please pay attention to the MLA recent updates listed below when citing a print journal. Make sure to incorporate these updates in your citations.

  • The Journal title in the citation needs to be Italicized not underlined.
  • When citing a print article the issue number and the medium used for retrieval need to be included in the citation.

Single Author Article 

Format: Author's last name, A.A. "Article Title", Journal Title, Volume Number. Issue Number (Publication Date), Pages. The medium of publication.

Example: Ulmer, William A. "The Christian Wordsworth 1798-1800", Journal of English and Germanic Philology 95, (1996), pp. 336-58. print.

Multiple Author Article

Format: Author's last name, A.A., Author's last name, B.B. & Author's last name, C..C ."Article Title", Journal Title, Volume Number. Issue Number (Publication Date): Pages.The medium of publication.

Example: Hibel, J., George F, & Morgan, P. "Who Is Placed into Special Education?". Sociology of Education, Volume 83, Number 4 (October 2010), pp. 312-332, print.  

 

MLA - Citing a Book

When citing a book -  pay attention to the most recent updates of the MLA Citation Format that are listed below and incorporate them in your citations.

  • Contributors roles (such as editors and translators,etc.) need to be spelled out in full.  Example: translated by ...  
  • City of publication is omitted. 
  • Colons and parenthesis are no longer used. Commas and periods separate the elements in each citation.  
  • Indent your citation after the first line. 

Single Author

FormatAuthor's last name, A.  A. Book Title. Publisher, Year of Publication.  

Example: Lears, Jackson. Fables of Abundance: A Cultural History of Advertising in America. Basic Books, 1994. 

Two Authors

Format: Author's last name, A.  A., and Author's first name and last name. Book Title. Publisher, Year of Publication. 

Example: Achtert, Walter S., and Joseph Gibaldi. The MLA Style ManualMLA, 1985. 

 

Multiple Authors - Three or More Authors 

Basic Format: Author's last name, A.  A., et al. Book Title. Publisher, Year of Publication

Example: Shoham, Shlomo G., et al.  International Handbook of Criminology. CRC Press, 2010.

 

Book with Multiple Editions  (List edition only if the book has more than one edition)

Format: Last name, First M. Book Title. Edition, Publisher, Year of Publication. 

Example: Mitchell, Susan. American Attitudes: Who Thinks What About The Issues That Shape Our Lives.2nd edition. New Strategist Publication 1998.

 

Chapter/Anthology

Contributors roles (such as editors and translators,etc.) need to be spelled out in full.  Example: translated by ...   

Format:  Last name, First M. "Chapter Title". In First  and Last name (ed.) Book Title. Edition, Publisher, Year of Publication 

Example: Collier, Richard. "Masculinities and Crime: Rethinking the"Man Question"? In Sumner, Colin (editor) The Blackwell Companion to Criminology.  Blackwell Publishing, 2004.  

MLA - Citing an e-Book

 When citing an e-book - pay attention to the MLA recent updates listed below and incorporate them in your citations.

  • The Book Title needs to be italicized not underlined.
  • Omit the medium of publication "Web" but include the URL. 
  • Provide DOI or the link to the item, if available., Otherwise, just copy and paste the web address where you accessed it.
  • Omit http:// at the beginning of the web address. 
  • Date of access should be included when the web publication itself is not dated, but can usually be omitted when the item has a publication date.  

Format: Last name, First name. Book Title. Publisher, Publication date. Electronic publication, Date viewed

Example: Thomas, Sue., Telling West Indian lives: life narrative and the reform of plantation slavery cultures 1804-1834,  Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. Commonwealth eBook Collections. find.minlib.net/iii/encore/record/C__Rb3545865
 
Example: Orman, Suze. The Money Class: Learn to Create Your New American Dream. Random House Publishing Group.Kindle ed., 2011. Electronic publication. May 26, 2011.

MLA - Citing a Website

Please pay attention to the MLA recent update listed below when citing information from a website. Make sure to incorporate these updates in your citations.

  1. The name of the website, medium of publication and retrieval date (The date on which you found the information on the Web) all need to be included in the citation. 

  • The website URL needs to be included only in websites in which the content changes frequently. 

Format: Author's last name, A.A. "Article Title", Website Title, Publication Date. The medium of retrieval. Retrieval Date. Retrieved from URL (optional) 

Example 

Richter Ruthann, "Among teens, sleep deprivation an epidemic". Retrieved from Stanford Medicine News Center. Web. November 21, 2018. URL.

Remember  to:

Use Available from when the URL leads to information on how to obtain the material

Use Retrieved from when the material itself has actually been retrieved from the site.

 

MLA - Formatting The Work Cited Page

At the end of your paper you are required to include a bibliographical listing (a list of all the resources you consulted when writing your paper). The following list provides the basic MLA guidelines for creating the Work Cited page. 

For additional guidance on Formatting your Work Cited page, watch the MLA Tutorial #3: Works Cited Page Formatting in the MLA Video Tutorial page in this guide. You can also review the tutorial, by simply  clicking on the link. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ng_PeRBFa4s

Work Cited

Start your Work Cited listing on a separate page at the end of your research paper.

Title the page Work Cited (do not underline or use bold letters) and center it to the middle of the page.

Maintain the same margains and spaces settings on your Works Cited page as you did throughout your paper.

All citations should be double spaced.     

Entries need to be listed alphabethically by the author's last name. If no author is listed, begin with the title.

Indent after the first line of each entry. 

Capitalize titles of books and articles according to convention.

Italics titles of books, journals and databases. 

If a book was published in more than one edition, the edition needs to be noted after the title. Edition number is not specified in a first edition of publication.

Publishing details for books are not enclosed in brackets.

Do not use bullets or numbers when listing the resources on your Work Cited page.

The sections of the citation are seperated by full stops not commas.

All citations need to end with a period.